The New Era of Indian Trade: Strategic Shifts in FTA Negotiations

In a pivotal change in its international trade policy, the Indian government is moving away from relying on import duties as a primary source of revenue in Free Trade Agreement (FTA) negotiations. This shift is indicative of India’s evolving stance in response to global economic challenges and opportunities.

India-Australia Trade Dynamics

The India-Australia Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) negotiations have highlighted the diversification of trade interests. Indian exports to Australia, primarily consisting of petroleum products, medicines, and gold jewelry, were valued at US$4 billion in 2020-21. In contrast, Australia’s exports to India, including coal and natural gas, stood at US$8.5 billion. This bilateral trade relation is underpinned by a range of sectors, including cleantech, critical minerals, space, and education, with significant investment packages announced​​.

India-EU FTA: A Complex Landscape

India’s negotiations with the EU cover a broad spectrum of issues, from agriculture and digital trade to intellectual property and sustainability. The EU’s push for liberalizing cross-border data flows and investment protection provisions poses challenges for India, which is protective of its policy space, especially in digital governance and raw material sectors. The EU’s ambitious demands in these areas contrast with India’s desire to maintain policy flexibility​​.

India-UK FTA Progress

In the ongoing India-UK FTA talks, significant progress has been made on various fronts, including investment treaties, IPRs, and rules of origin. India’s chief negotiator has indicated nearing the closure of several chapters encompassing environment, labor, and digital trade. The bilateral trade between these nations has been growing steadily, indicating the potential for a comprehensive and mutually beneficial trade agreement​​.

Strategic Shift in Focus

This strategic shift in India’s FTA negotiations is a response to the changing global trade environment and internal economic needs. By moving away from import duties as the main revenue source, India is aligning its trade policies with its broader economic objectives, focusing on technology, innovation, and long-term partnerships.

Data-Driven Analysis

  • In 2020-21, Indian exports to Australia were valued at US$4 billion, while imports stood at US$8.5 billion.
  • The India-EU FTA negotiations involve complex issues like digital trade and investment protection, with the EU proposing ambitious commitments that challenge India’s policy space.
  • India-UK bilateral trade reached US$20.36 billion in 2022-23, marking an increase from the US$17.5 billion in 2021-22.
  • India’s average MFN applied duties in agricultural and non-agricultural products are significantly higher compared to the EU, suggesting more substantial tariff cuts for India in any FTA​​.


India’s new approach to FTA negotiations reflects a nuanced understanding of global trade dynamics and its domestic economic imperatives. The shift from import duties as a revenue source to a focus on technology and innovation demonstrates India’s commitment to fostering sustainable and mutually beneficial international trade relationships.



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